Security concerns have become a priority issue for many countries around the world. In China, this has manifested itself in a “holistic view of national security”—a phrase now directly invoked in the new Anti-Espionage Law that encompasses a broad understanding of national security and emphasizes vigilance against security risks in all areas. The Anti-Espionage Law was recently enacted in the wake of several high-profile cases, including a dawn raid at the Shanghai office of a renowned US management consulting firm. To what extent does this affect economic cooperation with China? Does the Law’s expanded scope of “espionage activities” jeopardize the normal operation of foreign companies and scientific exchanges? And how is academic research affected? Is it still possible to share data in cooperation projects and collect business information in China?